• Advertisement
Kiehberg.in -  Outdoor gear and sports equipment

AR-15; the progeny of genius.

Posts related to rifles.
User avatar
xl_target
Posts: 3455
Joined: Wed Jul 29, 2009 7:47 am
Location: USA

AR-15; the progeny of genius.

Postby xl_target » Mon Feb 10, 2014 7:00 am

Who was Eugene Stoner?

Eugene Stoner (1922-1997), along with John Moses Browning and Mikhael Kalashnikov, is often regarded as one of the most successful gun designers of the twentieth century. In 1954, as the chief designer at ArmaLite, he designed a series of prototype small arms, including the AR-3, AR-5, AR-9, AR-10, AR-11 and AR-12. Few of these were successfully produced except for the AR-5 survival rifle, which was adopted by the US Air Force. The civilian version of the AR-5 was the AR-7 and has sold quite well.

Image
AR-7 Survival rifle
Image from HERE

Image
AR-7: The entire action is broken down and fits in the stock
Image from HERE

The AR10 was submitted for rifle evaluation trials to the US Army but due to a number of reasons, the M14 was chosen.

At the request of the U.S. military, Stoner's chief assistant, Robert Fremont and Jim Sullivan designed the AR-15 from the basic AR-10 design, scaling it down to fire the small-caliber .223 Remington cartridge. The AR-15 was later adopted by United States military forces as the M16 rifle.[2][3]
After ArmaLite sold the rights to the AR-15 to Colt, Stoner turned his attention to the AR-16 design. This was another advanced 7.62 mm rifle but used a more conventional piston and a number of stamped parts to reduce cost. This weapon saw only prototype development but adaptation to .223 resulted in the somewhat successful and often imitated Armalite AR-18.[2]
Stoner left ArmaLite in 1961 to serve as a consultant for Colt. He eventually accepted a position with Cadillac Gage where he designed the Stoner 63 Weapons System.[2] This was a modular weapons system that could be reconfigured to be a standard automatic rifle, a light machine gun, a medium machine gun, or a solenoid-fired fixed machine gun. The Stoner Weapons System used a piston-operated gas impingement system, though Stoner himself believed direct gas operation was the ideal method for firearms. Once again, Robert Fremont and Jim Sullivan would take a Stoner design and redesign it for the .223 Remington cartridge, to create the Stoner 63 Weapons System.[4]
Stoner worked for TRW by designing the TRW 6425 25 mm Bushmaster auto cannon, which was later manufactured by Oerlikon as the KBA.[1]
He co-founded ARES Incorporated of Port Clinton, Ohio, in 1972, but left the company in 1989, after designing the Ares Light Machine Gun, sometimes known as the Stoner 86. It was an evolved version of the Stoner 63. At Ares, he also designed the Future Assault Rifle Concept (FARC).[1]
In 1990, he joined Knight's Armament Company (KAC) to create the Stoner Rifle-25 (SR-25), which currently sees military service as the United States Navy Mark 11 Mod 0 Sniper Weapon System. While at KAC, he also worked on yet another version of the Stoner Weapons System, called the Stoner 96. Among his last designs were the SR-50 rifle and the Colt 2000.[5]

Quote from HERE

Other weapons designed by Eugene Stoner:
Armalite designs
· AR-3
· AR-7
· AR-9
· AR-10
· AR-11
· AR-12
· AR-15
· M16 rifle
· AR-16
· AR-18

other designs
· Stoner 62 / Stoner 63
· TRW 6425 25 mm “Bushmaster” auto cannon
· ARES FMG (Folding Machine Gun)
· Ares Light Machine Gun (A.K.A. the “Stoner 86”)
· Advanced Individual Weapon System (AIWS)
· Future Assault Rifle Concept (FARC)
· SR-25 (U.S. Navy Mark 11 Mod 0 Sniper Rifle)
· SR-15
· Stoner 96
· SR-50


So why are we talking about Eugene Stoner?

Even though Colt produced the M16 for the US armed forces, we must remember that the father of the M16 was Eugene Stoner.
The M16 is a select fire rifle. Colt also produced the AR-15 as a semi automatic version of the M16. Colt's AR-15 was designated for civilian sales.

The AR15 is a modular, gas operated, semi automatic rifle chambered for the 5.56 X 45mm cartridge.
In future posts in this thread, I will attempt to show you how the rifle most associated with Stoner's name (the AR-15) gets built from its constituent parts into a firing rifle.

I hope you will follow along with my build and I hope others will add valuable info to this thread.


“Never give in, never give in, never; never; never; never – in nothing, great or small, large or petty – never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense” — Winston Churchill, Oct 29, 1941

For Advertising mail webmaster
User avatar
timmy
Posts: 1950
Joined: Mon Dec 08, 2008 7:03 am
Location: I'm a Nuevo Mexicano

Re: AR-15; the progeny of genius.

Postby timmy » Mon Feb 10, 2014 7:45 am

Go XL! Thanks for this interesting write-up. It is most informative and I'm looking forward to more installments.

On a silly note, I remember 007 James Bond using the AR 7 to shoot a bad guy and to down a helicopter.

I also remember them being sold in many sporting catalogs as a kid, but I don't recall anyone ever buying one -- I never saw one in the field.

This has the makings of a great thread!


Regards,
tim

User avatar
xl_target
Posts: 3455
Joined: Wed Jul 29, 2009 7:47 am
Location: USA

Re: AR-15; the progeny of genius.

Postby xl_target » Mon Feb 10, 2014 10:20 am

Tim,
Most of the AR-7 variants sold were pretty crappy. They were very cheaply made and not very accurate or reliable. Probably more a reflection of the materials used and poor QC. I think it was in "From Russia with Love" that Commander Bond used the AR7.

However, in recent years, the ones made by the Henry Repeating Arms Co. are pretty decent.


“Never give in, never give in, never; never; never; never – in nothing, great or small, large or petty – never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense” — Winston Churchill, Oct 29, 1941

User avatar
xl_target
Posts: 3455
Joined: Wed Jul 29, 2009 7:47 am
Location: USA

Re: AR-15; the progeny of genius.

Postby xl_target » Tue Feb 11, 2014 11:03 am

The M16
The M16 rifle, officially designated Rifle, Caliber 5.56 mm, M16, is the United States military select-fire adaptation of the AR-15 rifle. The rifle was adapted for semi-automatic and full-automatic fire.


Image
Top to bottom: M16A1, M16A2, M4A1, M16A4
quote and image from HERE


The AR15

The AR-15 is a lightweight, 5.56 mm/.223-caliber, magazine-fed, air cooled rifle with a rotating-lock bolt, actuated by direct impingement gas operation or long/short stroke piston operation. It has been produced in many different versions, including numerous semi-automatic and selective fire variants. It is manufactured with extensive use of aluminum alloys and synthetic materials.

Most AR-15's built in the US today are of the semi auto variety with no legal way to convert them to full auto.

Image
quote and image from HERE



Components assemblies of the AR-15

Image
image from HERE
(1) Magazine
(2) Small Arms Sling
(3) Bolt Carrier Assembly
(4) Charging Handle Assembly
(5) Upper Receiver and Barrel Assembly
(6) Lower Receiver and Buttstock Assembly

Thanks to modern machining techniques, You can put the upper receiver and barrel assembly on almost any lower receiver and butt stock assembly and have a functional gun. The Lower receiver has the serial number of the firearm and is considered the actual firearm. You can have a number of upper assemblies in different calibers or configurations and a single lower assembly and switch them around to create multiple configurations. There are just two captive pins ( in the lower assembly) that hold the complete firearm together.

(1) The Magazine
Image
This is a standard 30 round M16/AR-15 GI type magazine. The 5.56X45 NATO cartridges are shown alongside a CCI MiniMag .22 LR cartridge for a size comparison. Please note that this is considered a standard magazine for this firearm and is not a "High Capacity" magazine like some sources will have you believe. The discoloration that you are seeing around the upper half of the cartridges is due to a process called annealing. This is standard for 5.56 X 45 NATO cartridges.

(3) The Bolt Carrier Group (BCG) or assembly.

Image
image from HERE
This consists of the bolt, bolt carrier, firing pin, extractor, ejector and cam pin. The gas key is held onto the top of the bolt carrier by two hardened screws that are staked in place. The lugs of the bolt cam and lock into grooves cut into the barrel.

(4) The Charging Handle assembly

Image
image from HERE

The Charging Handle assembly which locks in place with a latch, allows you to draw back the bolt. Once it is at the limit of its travel, if let go, it will allow the BCG to close under spring pressure, stripping a cartridge off the magazine and loading it into the chamber. The action also allows the bolt to slam shut, rotate and lock into place behind the cartridge. Pulling the trigger now fires the cartridge. The Charging Handle does not reciprocate but stays locked in place as the bolt reciprocates under recoil, ejects the spent cartridge case and loads a new one into the chamber.

(5) The Upper Receiver and barrel assembly

Image
image from HERE

Image
image from HERE

This consists of:
1) Handguard Assembly
(2) Gas Tube Pin
(3) Gas Tube
(4) Flash Suppressor/Compensator
(5) Peel Washer
(6) Handguard Slip Ring Retaining Ring
(7) Handguard Slip Ring Spring
(8) Handguard Slip Ring
(9) Upper Receiver Assembly
(10) Barrel Assembly
The barrel assembly has the gas block/front sight assembly attached and pinned in place over a gas port that is drilled into the barrel. The gas block assembly also has the front sling swivel riveted in place to it.
Many assemblies are pinned in place by spring steel roll pins. With the proper tools, it is a simple matter to remove and re-install the roll pins.

(6) The Lower Receiver and Buttstock assembly.

Image
image from HERE
This consists of:
(1) Grip Machine Screw
(2) Grip Lock Washer
(3) Grip
(4) Safety Detent Helical Spring
(5) Safety Detent
(6) Lower Receiver Extension Self Locking Screw
(7) Buttstock Assembly
(8) Stepped Spacer
(9) Takedown Pin Detent Helical Spring
(10) Takedown Pin Detent
(11) Takedown Pin
(12) Pivot Pin
(13) Buffer Assembly
(14) Recoil Spring
(15) Bolt Catch Pin
(16) Bolt Catch
(17) Bolt Catch Plunger
(18) Bolt Catch Helical Compression Spring
(19) Magazine Catch
(20) Magazine Catch Button
(21) Magazine Catch Helical Spring
(22) Automatic Sear Pin
(23) Sear
(24) Selector Lever
(25) Hammer And Trigger Spring
(26) Hammer Assembly
(27) Disconnector
(28) Disconnector
(29) Trigger Assembly
(30) Lower Receiver and Receiver Extension Assembly

Operation of the AR15:
When the trigger is pulled, the hammer hits the firing pin which impacts the primer. The primer ignites the powder charge inside the cartridge. The burning of this propellant (powder), which is a slow burning, smokeless powder produces a large amount of gas. As the pressure inside the cartridge rises, the bullet is forced out of its mouth. The bullet travels down the barrel, engaging the rifling and spinning as it goes, till it exits the barrel.

Some of the gas trapped while the bullet is still in the barrel, exits the gas port in the barrel, entering the gas tube. This gas in the gas tube pushes back on the gas key on top of the BCG. This forces the bolt carrier backwards, unlocking the bolt. The extractor in the bolt grabs the rim of the cartridge, pulling it out off the chamber. With the assistance of the spring loaded ejector, the cartridge is ejected from the ejection port on the right side of the rifle. This rearward motion also re-cocks the hammer.

The buffer and buffer/recoil spring compresses and returns causing the bolt to return to battery, picking up another cartridge from the magazine.

Please note that most of these images came from AR15.com.
If you want to know anything and everything about the AR-15, this is the place to go to.


“Never give in, never give in, never; never; never; never – in nothing, great or small, large or petty – never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense” — Winston Churchill, Oct 29, 1941

User avatar
Baljit
Posts: 873
Joined: Tue Jun 23, 2009 8:27 am
Location: Kelowna , BC . Canada
Contact:

Re: AR-15; the progeny of genius.

Postby Baljit » Tue Feb 11, 2014 9:39 pm

Keep it up the good work XL. Thanks for shearing this info.



Baljit



User avatar
Hammerhead
Posts: 594
Joined: Thu Aug 04, 2011 6:52 am
Location: Toronto

Re: AR-15; the progeny of genius.

Postby Hammerhead » Tue Feb 11, 2014 10:36 pm

Good info - Thanks for posting XL


The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing. - Edmund Burke

User avatar
xl_target
Posts: 3455
Joined: Wed Jul 29, 2009 7:47 am
Location: USA

Re: AR-15; the progeny of genius.

Postby xl_target » Wed Feb 12, 2014 1:46 am

If we want to build an AR-15 from scratch, we start with the very basics.

Image
This is a stripped lower receiver. It costs $69 +Shipping from HERE.
As you can see it is made by JV Precision Machine Co. for LRB of Long Island.
LRB's claim to fame is their precision forged M14 receiver.

Even though it is just a hunk of metal, it is considered "The Firearm" as it is a serial numbered part.
To purchase this, one would have to be legally able to purchase a firearm and be able to pass the standard FBI background check.


The nice thing about an AR-15 receiver is that it is built to Military Specifications. If it is made to "mil-spec", then all mil spec parts will fit.
So you can buy a receiver from any number of manufacturers. However, there are basically a handful of machine shops that produce these receivers.
They brand them for different retailers/manufacturers.
Of course, some manufacturers like Colt make their own.
However, one has to remember is that if a receiver conforms to mil-spec, it good to go.

As you can see from the breakdown of the lower receiver (in previous posts), there are a lot of parts to add to this before we have a gun that we can take to the range.
We have to add a "Lower Parts Kit", a Buffer tube (with buffer and spring) and a Buttstock.
The Lower parts kit has the hammer, trigger, take-down pin, pivot pin, springs, roll pins, safety, mag azine latch, bolt release, pistol grip, etc.

Image
Here is what a typical Lower Parts Kit (LPK) looks like.


“Never give in, never give in, never; never; never; never – in nothing, great or small, large or petty – never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense” — Winston Churchill, Oct 29, 1941

User avatar
timmy
Posts: 1950
Joined: Mon Dec 08, 2008 7:03 am
Location: I'm a Nuevo Mexicano

Re: AR-15; the progeny of genius.

Postby timmy » Wed Feb 12, 2014 5:22 am

Good information, XL. What do you think it would cost to build one up from a kit -- nothing fancy, just the plain "vanilla" parts? Can doing a parts gun compete, cost wise, with buying a complete rifle?

(hope you don't mind my futzing with the links a bit!)

BTW, yes, those scenes with the AR7 are from From Russia With Love, which ties for my favorite with You Only Live Twice. You will remember that Ali Kareem Bey shoots the bad guy from Bond's shoulder. Ali Kareem Bey was the famous Pedro Armendariz, the great leading man of Mexican Cinema's Golden Period. He was also in John Wayne's Fort Apache[/]. Check out [i]Maria Candelaria with screen legend Dolores Del Rio or La Escondida with the incomparable Maria Felix sometime. Sadly, Armendariz was diagnosed with cancer and suffered greatly during the making of From Russia With Love, and he committed suicide not long afterwards.

sorry to digress...

Also, XL, do you have information and opinions regarding a carbon fiber version of the M16? It came with a short barrel and was almost more of a pistol. I find those things interesting, but don't know whether they worked very well. Comments?

The earliest M16s did not have that assist knob for pushing the bolt closed; isn't that right?


Regards,

tim

User avatar
Baljit
Posts: 873
Joined: Tue Jun 23, 2009 8:27 am
Location: Kelowna , BC . Canada
Contact:

Re: AR-15; the progeny of genius.

Postby Baljit » Wed Feb 12, 2014 6:22 am

Again very nice info.XL, I think i am going to wait till end of next month, then i am going to go ahead with my "Project 2014".

Should I post here in this thread or should I start new thread.? :)


Baljit



User avatar
xl_target
Posts: 3455
Joined: Wed Jul 29, 2009 7:47 am
Location: USA

Re: AR-15; the progeny of genius.

Postby xl_target » Wed Feb 12, 2014 10:26 am

Baljit,
Go ahead and add to the thread if you like. That way people can see the different configurations that you can make up.
Anyone else who wants to add to it; go right ahead.

Tim,
To make a semi auto M4 clone, is quite simple and straightforward.
For example, here is a complete upper, ready to go for $299.
http://palmettostatearmory.com/index.php/ptac-16-mid-length-5-56mm-1-7-upper-with-bcg-and-charging-handle.html

Add to that a complete lower kit with buttstock assembly for $149
http://palmettostatearmory.com/index.php/psa-ar-15-complete-blem-lower-classic-edition-no-magazine.html

Now you need a magazine; $7
http://palmettostatearmory.com/index.php/imi-defense-polymer-30rd-ar15-magazine.html

All thats left to add is a rear sight for $37.95
http://palmettostatearmory.com/index.php/sights-optics/rifle-iron-sights/magpul-gen-2-front-mbus-back-up-sight.html

So for under $500, you have a complete firing rifle. It's all mil-spec and it will work just fine.

However, to tailor a rifle to your tastes, is a different matter. You could pick your components from a plethora of manufacturers to fit your size or shooting style or whatever. For example you could chose a barrel that is stainless or has an unusual twist rate or has a heavy profile. Instead of the standard forged upper and lower, you could pick a customized set milled out of billet Aluminum. You could customize your hand guard with a ton of accessories. You could go with a piston instead of direct gas Impingement. A whole lot of choices and prices.
You can buy or build a custom AR-15 that costs several thousands.

Also, XL, do you have information and opinions regarding a carbon fiber version of the M16? It came with a short barrel and was almost more of a pistol. I find those things interesting, but don't know whether they worked very well. Comments?

The earliest M16s did not have that assist knob for pushing the bolt closed; isn't that right?


Bushmaster made a Carbon15 that was very lightweight. I've never fired one or even held one. Some people swear by them and some people have had problems. Checking for online reviews on the Carbon 15, you get mixed reviews.

You're correct, the very earliest M16's did not have a forward assist. That was added later.


“Never give in, never give in, never; never; never; never – in nothing, great or small, large or petty – never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense” — Winston Churchill, Oct 29, 1941

User avatar
TC
Posts: 1805
Joined: Tue Dec 05, 2006 11:50 am
Location: Kolkata

Re: AR-15; the progeny of genius.

Postby TC » Wed Feb 12, 2014 12:26 pm

Nice post Xl. Thanks.
One of my relatives here in Bengal actually had an AR-7 and I had quite a time with it during my holidays. When he bought it there was no strict restriction on semi-autos and any .22 rifle would just be endorsed in the licence as ".22 rifle".
That one had the old black (greyish) butt and the butt cap would not fit tightly after years of use. Finally he sold it to a dealer for 30k INR.
The rifle would not get high marks for accuracy beyond 30/40 metres, was a little uncomfortable to hold and Indian ammo would often fail to extract and recycle the action. But it was real fun to carry the light carbine around all day. I am sure you know even James Bond used one... Diamonds are Forever maybe. Can't recollect.

Thanks again for bringing back fond memories.

:cheers:

TC



User avatar
ckkalyan
Posts: 1410
Joined: Sat May 29, 2010 10:37 pm
Location: British Columbia, Canada
Contact:

Re: AR-15; the progeny of genius.

Postby ckkalyan » Wed Feb 12, 2014 2:52 pm

Love this thread xl_target,

Great detail, images and information - keep it going!

Your open invitation to all who can contribute is very magnanimous! :D


When guns are outlawed, only outlaws will have guns!

User avatar
xl_target
Posts: 3455
Joined: Wed Jul 29, 2009 7:47 am
Location: USA

Re: AR-15; the progeny of genius.

Postby xl_target » Wed Feb 12, 2014 9:16 pm

I found a short video that covers some of the history and development of the AR-15/M16. It does go into some of the politics that go along with having a "military-industrial complex".
...... and you guys thought getting a new rifle for the Indian Army was tough :).

[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JXUkgOz-fKk&feature=youtu.be[/youtube]


I'm hanging around the phone today, waiting for the "brown truck Santa" to show up at my dealer's doorstep.

Image
UPS's website tells me that the first part I need to start this build is "out for delivery"


“Never give in, never give in, never; never; never; never – in nothing, great or small, large or petty – never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense” — Winston Churchill, Oct 29, 1941

User avatar
Baljit
Posts: 873
Joined: Tue Jun 23, 2009 8:27 am
Location: Kelowna , BC . Canada
Contact:

Re: AR-15; the progeny of genius.

Postby Baljit » Thu Feb 13, 2014 3:45 am

Indeed very nice video XL. Very soon I am going to post here as well.

I will try to cover as much as I can with the pictures when I am build my AR and I am sure all of you guy's going to enjoy that.

Baljit



User avatar
xl_target
Posts: 3455
Joined: Wed Jul 29, 2009 7:47 am
Location: USA

Re: AR-15; the progeny of genius.

Postby xl_target » Mon Feb 17, 2014 4:39 am

Well, I'm finally able to hold them in my sticky little fingers.

Image
Triplets!

Image
Here is a close up of one of them.

Image
Since a bare receiver is not much to look at, here is a 20 round magazine inserted in the magwell.

Now to wait for the rest of the parts to come in so I can proceed with the build.


“Never give in, never give in, never; never; never; never – in nothing, great or small, large or petty – never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense” — Winston Churchill, Oct 29, 1941


Return to “Rifles”

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 6 guests